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Needs Assessment

 

2.1 Needs Assessment – General

 

2.1.1 General – Needs Assessment 

Donations should only be made based on an expressed need, at the request of the in-country partner, and after a thorough needs assessment confirms that the donation is also appropriate for the setting.

In addition to the specific product requirements, the overall needs assessment process should collect and assess the following information:

2.1.1.1 MSROS should collect and assess information regarding the demographics and socioeconomic statuses of the population being served.

2.1.1.2 MSROS should collect and assess information regarding whether or not the recipient organization has an understanding of the local healthcare infrastructure, including the location and capacity of healthcare facilities.

 

2.1.1.3 MSROS should collect and assess relevant information regarding the in-country partner’s staff capacity and qualifications, in order to determine the ability of the partner to effectively handle and distribute the donation.

 

2.1.1.4 MSROS should collect and assess information related to the quantity of product needed.

 

2.1.1.5 MSROS should assess the recipient organization’s policies and plans for taking into account the medical cultures, beliefs, and traditional health practices.

 

2.1.1.6 MSROS should exchange contact information with the recipient organization. This information should be exchanged in order to maintain effective communication throughout the donation process and as a resource as questions arise.

 

2.1.1.7 MSROS should collect and assess information regarding the logistics capabilities of the receiving country in order to identify any potential problems or difficulties. Items to consider may include transportation network, customs/Ministry of Health (MOH) rules and regulations, import laws, local shipping and storage capacity, climate, and security.

 

2.1.1.8 MSROs should determine whether the recipient organization has a product disposal plan.

 

2.1.1.9 Prior to shipping, MSROs should have all product reviewed and approved by the recipient. 

Guidance & Resources

 

Ensuring the appropriateness of a donation is one of the most important steps in any donation process. If a donation is not appropriate it can create an additional burden for the recipient. This is particularly true in disaster situations where inappropriate donations actually impede recovery efforts.

 

The World Bank Data Catalog

This website has links to the various data sets collected by the World Bank. Some of the datasets included are: World Development Indicators; Africa Development Indicators; GEM Commodities; Global Economic Monitor (GEM); Gender Statistics (GenderStats); Migration and Remittances Factbook 2011; Education Statistics (EdStats); Worldwide Governance Indicators (WGI); Research Datasets and Analytical Tools; International Debt Statistics (IDS); Doing Business (DB); Country Profiles (CP); GNI per capita ranking; World Development Report 2011; and many more.

(Source The World Bank)

 

The World Health Organization: Healthcare Infrastructure

This resource was created by the World Health Organization’s Global Health Observatory (GHO) and provides needs assessment assistance through details on healthcare infrastructure by WHO region and country. It includes a data depository, reports, country statistics, a map gallery, and standards.

(Source: The World Health Organization. Global Health Observatory (GHO))

 

Facility Human Resources Questionnaire

This template is a means for MSROs to collect basic human resources information from potential recipient organizations.

(Source: Training4Good)

2.1.2 General – Gap Analysis

 

The Medical Surplus Recovery Organizations agree to establish a cooperative and systematic process for determining and addressing the needs of the receiving organizations, or the gaps between current and desired conditions.

 

2.1.2.1 MSROs have a documented process for measuring the gap between the products requested and the products that are provided.

Guidance & Resources

The discrepancy between the current condition and wanted condition must be measured to properly identify the need. The need can be a desire to improve the current performance or to correct a deficiency. A needs assessment is a part of the planning process, often used for improvement in individuals, education and training, organizations, or communities.

Conducting a Gap Analysis: A Four-Step Template

This resource is a comprehensive guide through the steps of conducting a gap analysis with planning templates available.

(Source: ClearPoint Strategy)

2.2 Needs Assessment – Consumables

2.2.1 Consumables – Needs Assessment

Consumable product donations should only be made based on an expressed need, at the request of the in-country partner, and after a thorough needs assessment confirms that the donation is also appropriate for the setting.  In addition to the general assessment requirements, the consumable product needs assessment process should collect and assess the following information.

 

2.2.1.1 MSROs should determine if recipients have access to the appropriate human resources to properly handle the donation. 

 

2.2.1.2 MSROs should determine that the product type, quantity, size, and material appropriately address the health needs of the target population. 

 

2.2.1.3 MSROs should determine if recipient organizations have access to the reagents or consumables required to operate the donated equipment.

 

Guidance & Resources

Nonprofit HR Insight Library

This resource is a general guide for advice and insight regarding HR evaluation and strategy in nonprofit organizations.

(Source: nonprofit HR)

Health Needs Assessment: A Practical Guide

These guidelines were created by the National Center for Health and Care Excellence in the UK. It outlines the process for conducting a needs assessment and also provides case studies. 

(Source: National Center for Health and Care Excellence)

2.3 Needs Assessment – Medical Equipment

2.3.1 Medical Equipment – General Needs Assessment

Medical equipment donations should only be made based on an expressed need, at the request of the in-country partner, and after a thorough needs assessment confirms that the donation is also appropriate for the setting.

In addition to the general assessment requirements, the medical equipment needs assessment process should collect and assess the following information.

2.3.1.1 MSROs should determine whether the technology is appropriate for the operating environment.

 

2.3.1.2 MSROs should determine whether the number of accessories required is minimal and/or will not pose significant challenges to the operation and maintenance of the equipment.

 

2.3.1.3 Necessary operating supplies (particularly disposables) are available at an affordable cost.

 

2.3.1.4 MSROs should determine whether standardization with other in-country equipment exists or is feasible.

 

2.3.1.5 MSROs should determine whether the donated equipment has low energy consumption.

 

2.3.1.6 MSROs should determine whether the equipment uses environmentally friendly substances.

 

2.3.1.7 MSROs should determine whether the equipment is easy to maintain.

 

2.3.1.8 MSROs should determine whether the equipment has a reasonable tolerance to hostile electrical and physical environments.

 

Guidance & Resources

 

Prior to the donation of a piece of medical equipment, the donor organization must assess the recipient’s capacity to handle the device. Important factors to consider include but are not limited to: available facilities, electrical and pneumatic power, heating ventilation, and air conditioning. In addition, it should be determined whether or not the recipient organization has access to properly trained clinicians and technicians to install, operate, maintain, calibrate, and repair the device.  

 

WHO Guidelines for Health Care Equipment Donations

This WHO resource provides general guidelines for healthcare equipment donations. These guidelines are a great resource for information regarding international standards for determining a quality medical equipment donation. Much of what it mentions are important for an organization to consider during the needs assessment process.

(Source: The World Health Organization)

 

WHO Medical Devices Website 

This World Health Organization website provides online and downloadable policies, strategies, tools, and health technology action plans and country-specific information for medical devices. 

(Source: The World Health Organization)

 

WHO Development of Medical Device Policies

The purpose of this World Health Organization guidance document is to raise the awareness of the importance of developing and implementing health technology policies – comprised of regulatory, health technology management, and health technology assessment components – within the context of a national health plan. 

(Source: The World Health Organization)

 

WHO Health Technology Assessment 

This World Health Organization page offers general information and further resources regarding the importance of and ways of conducting health technology assessments.

(Source: The World Health Organization)

2.3.2 Medical Equipment – Responsible Use Guide

 

MSROs should provide the recipient with a responsible use guide that outlines the requirements for the appropriate use and maintenance of the equipment, when applicable and possible. When a responsible use guide is not available, MSROs must inform the recipient prior to shipping the equipment.  The guide should include the following information.

 

2.3.2.1 MSROs should include product brand information within the Medical Equipment Responsible Use Guide.

 

2.3.2.2 MSROs should include installation location, including: floor loading capacity, ceiling height, and door width within the Medical Equipment Responsible Use Guide.

 

2.3.2.3 MSROs should include figures regarding electrical power (voltage, frequency, phase, and dissipation) needed within the Medical Equipment Responsible Use Guide.

 

2.3.2.4 MSROs should include figures regarding water volume, pressure, and drainage needed within the Medical Equipment Responsible Use Guide.

 

2.3.2.5 MSROs should include safety requirements (such as shielding) within the Medical Equipment Responsible Use Guide.

 

2.3.2.6 S MSROs should include information regarding sub-systems, including cables, reagents, filters, electrodes, and recording paper required to operate the equipment to be donated within the Medical Equipment Responsible Use Guide.

 

2.3.2.7 MSROs should include maintenance information within the Medical Equipment Responsible Use Guide.

 

2.3.2.8 MSROs should include transportation and offloading information within the Medical Equipment Responsible Use Guide.

Guidance & Resources

 

Medical Supplies and Equipment for Primary Health Care

This is a comprehensive World Health Organization resource that provides information regarding the procurement and management of medical supplies and equipment.

(Source: The World Health Organization)

2.4 Needs Assessment – Pharmaceuticals 

 

2.4.1 Pharmaceuticals – General Needs Assessment

 

Pharmaceutical donations should only be made based on an expressed need, at the request of the in-country partner, and after a thorough needs assessment confirms that the donation is also appropriate for the setting.

In addition to the general assessment requirements, the pharmaceutical needs assessment process should serve to collect and assess the following information.

 

2.4.1.1 MSROs should determine whether the product being sent matches the expressed need of the receiving organization and is appropriate for treating the affected population.

 

2.4.1.2 MSROs should determine whether the recipient organization has determined proper storage for the product. This includes storage facilities, shelving, dispensary facilities, and refrigeration.

 

2.4.1.3 MSROs should determine whether the recipient organization has the proper staff for handling and dispensing of pharmaceuticals prior to any donation being made.

 

2.4.1.4 Prior to donating pharmaceuticals to a country, MSROs must be familiar with any rules and regulations governing pharmaceuticals in that country. This can include, but is not limited to, drugs approved for use in the country, the receiving country’s WHO list of essential medicines, and any national standard treatment guidelines.

 

Guidance & Resources

 

Areas that should be considered when conducting a pharmaceutical needs assessment are:

  • Product, strength, dosage, presentation (caps, tabs, vial, etc.) of pharmaceutical in question;

  • Population, age, gender, number of patients within the target population;

  • Conditions, service delivery, capacity of resource, type of facility, number of beds, inpatient/outpatient, within the recipient organization; and

  • Medical specialty and name/contact info for hospital administration/head doctor.

WHO Guidelines for Medicine Donations

The 3rd edition of Guidelines for Medicine Donations has been developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) in cooperation with major international agencies active in humanitarian relief and development assistance. The guidelines are intended to improve the quality of medicine donations in international development assistance and emergency aid. 

(Source: The World Health Organization)

 

2.4.2 Pharmaceuticals – Target Population

 

Pharmaceutical donations should only be made based on an expressed need, at the request of the in-country partner, and after a thorough needs assessment confirms that the donation is also appropriate for the setting.

 

2.4.2.1 MSROs should choose partners who have policies and plans in place to ensure that donations are used in a way that respects local cultures and health practices.

 

Guidance & Resource

 

The WHO 2017 Expert Committee on the Selection and Use of Essential Medicines - Executive Summary

The WHO Essential Medicines and Health Products (EMP) Department works with countries to promote affordable access to quality, safe, and effective medicines, vaccines, diagnostics, and other medical devices. 

(Source: The World Health Organization)

 

The WHO Model List Essential Medicine and WHO Model List of Essential Medicines for Children are updated regularly and contains lists of essential medicines based on minimum population needs, diagnostic needs, and priority conditions. 

(Source: The World Health Organization)