2. Needs Assessment

2.1 Needs Assessment – General

2.2 Needs Assessment – Consumables

2.3 Needs Assessment – Medical Equipment

2.4 Needs Assessment – Pharmaceuticals

 


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2.1 Needs Assessment – General

2.1.1  General – Needs Assessment  Donations should only be made based on an expressed need, at the request of the in-country partner and after a thorough needs assessment confirms that the donation is also appropriate for the setting.
    In addition to the specific product requirements, the overall needs assessment process should collect and assess the following information.
    2.1.1.1 Demographics and socioeconomic status of the population being served. 2.1.1.2 Whether or not the recipient organization has an understanding of the local healthcare infrastructure, including the location and capacity of healthcare facilities. 2.1.1.3 Relevant information on the in-country partner’s staff capacity and qualifications. This is done in order to determine the ability of the partner to effectively handle and distribute the donation. 2.1.1.4 Information related to the quantity of product needed. 2.1.1.5 The recipient organization’s policies and plans for taking into account the medical culture, beliefs and traditional health practices. 2.1.1.6 Contact information for both the MSRO and recipient organization. This information should be exchanged in order to maintain effective communication throughout the donation process and as a resource in case questions arise. 2.1.1.7 The logistics capabilities of that country in order to identify any potential problems or difficulties. Items to consider may include transportation network, customs/Ministry of Health (MOH) rules and regulations, import laws, local shipping and storage capacity, climate and security. 2.2.1.8 MSROs should determine whether recipient organization has a product disposal plan. 2.1.1.9  Prior to shipping MSROs should have all product reviewed and approved by the recipient. 

    Guidance: Ensuring the appropriateness of a donation is one of the most important steps in any donation process. If a donation is not appropriate, it can create additional burden for the recipient. This is particularly true in disaster situations where inappropriate donations actually impede recovery efforts.
    Resources – 2.1.2 Donation Appropriateness
    MSRO Recipient Organization Application Resource Type: Example This resource provided by Hospital Sisters Mission Outreach is an example of an MSRO Donation Recipient Application. It provides both the MSRO and recipient with pertinent information regarding needs assessment and donation appropriateness.
    Source: Hospital Sisters Mission Outreach. Accessed on 02-25-16.
    The World Bank Data Catalog Resource Type: Website This website has links to the various data sets collected by the World Bank. Some of the datasets included are: World Development Indicators; Africa Development Indicators; GEM Commodities; Global Economic Monitor (GEM); Gender Statistics (GenderStats); Migration and Remittances Factbook 2011; Education Statistics (EdStats); Worldwide Governance Indicators (WGI); Research Datasets and Analytical Tools; International Debt Statistics (IDS); Doing Business (DB); Country Profiles (CP); GNI per capita ranking; World Development Report 2011; and many more!
    Citation: The World Bank. Data Catalog. Available at: http://datacatalog.worldbank.org/. Accessed on: 9/4/13. 
    World Health Organization Healthcare Infrastructure Information Resource Type: Website This resource was created by the World Health Organization’s Global Health Observatory (GHO) and provides needs assessment assistance through details on healthcare infrastructure by WHO region and country. It includes a data depository, reports, country statistics, a map gallery, and standards.
    Citation: The World Health Organization. Global Health Observatory (GHO), Healthcare Infrastructure. Available at: http://www.who.int/gho/health_technologies/medical_devices/healthcare_infrastructure/en/. Accessed on: 9/4/13. 
    Facility Human Resources Questionnaire Resource Type: Template This template can be used by an MSRO or donating organization in order to gain needs assessment information from a potential recipient organization.
    Source: Training4Good, Facility Human Resource Questionnaire Template.  Available at: https://docs.google.com/document/d/1xu4muQhA0OKfiaxCXVdESKZt_pWM5_gmoINox2QQsug/pub. Created on 8/29/17.
    Ministry of Health List by Country Resource Type: Website This website provides a list of Ministries of Health (MOH) around the world. The MOHs are listed by country and users can click on a link which redirects them to the MOH’s website.
    Citation: Emergo Group. Ministry of Health Websites Worldwide. Available at: http://www.emergogroup.com/resources/worldwide-ministries-health. Accessed on: 9/4/13. 
       
    Top 2.1.2 General – Gap Analysis The Organization agrees to establish a cooperative and systematic process for determining and addressing needs, or “gaps” between current conditions and desired conditions or “wants”.
    2.1.2.1 MSROs have a documented process for measuring the gap between what the products requested and the products that are provided.

      Guidance: The discrepancy between the current condition and wanted condition must be measured to properly identify the need. The need can be a desire to improve current performance or to correct a deficiency.  A needs assessment is a part of the planning process, often used for improvement in individuals, education and training, organizations, or communities.
      Resources – 2.1.1 Gap Analysis
      State Department – Country Fact Sheets Resource Type: Website This resource provides basic demographic, background and political information on countries and regions around the world.It also provides up to date issue updates, as well as, information on impacted populations. In addition, travel restrictions and warnings are also available here.Source: U.S. Department of State. Country and Region Assessment Resource. Available at: http://www.state.gov/countries/. Accessed on 8/6/13.
      Peoples of the World – By Country Resource Type: Website This resource provides a tool that will assist in gap analysis studies for various populations and cultures. It provides a list of the different indigenous groups found in each country.
      Source: Peoples of the World – By Country. Demographics and Health Infrastructure Resource. Available at: http://www.peoplesoftheworld.org/bycountry. Accessed on: 8/1/13.
      Climate Vulnerability Data Resource Type: Website This resource provides a map of data that addresses climate change and African Political Stability. It provides deatiled information and many different data points. This is an excellent resource for anyone wishing to learn more about this topic, and can provide useful information for informing the needs assessment process.
      Source: University of Texas – Austin. Available at: http://ccaps.aiddata.org/dashboards/show/1675858. Accessed on: 8/1/13.
      United National Statistics and Census Data & Map Resource Type: Website This United Nations resource provides global demographic and social statistics. This includes, housing, gender, economic, population, and other vital statistics information that is helpful in the needs assessment process.
      Source; United Nations Statistics Division. Demographics and Social Statistics. Available at: http://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic/. Accessed on 8/1/13.
      WHO Country Health Information Resource Type: Website WHO Country Pages provide statistics on demographic indicators, health status, health system, health delivery and more. At the bottom of the page countries can be found in alphabetical order. This is an excellent resource to inform the needs assessment process.
      Source: WHO Country Health Information. Health Statistics, Including Expenditures and Comparisons. Available at: http://www.who.int/nha/country/en/. Accessed on 8/1/13.
      CIA World Factbook Resource Type: Website The CIA World Factbook provides information the history, people, government, geography, transportation, military, communications and more for more than 250 countries.
      Source: CIA World Factbook. Available at:https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html  Accessed on 8/1/13. 


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      2.2 Needs Assessment – Consumables

      2.2.1 Consumables – Needs Assessment Consumable product donations should only be made based on an expressed need, at the request of the in-country partner and after a thorough needs assessment confirms that the donation is also appropriate for the setting.
        In addition to the general assessment requirements, the consumable product needs assessment process should collect and assess the following information.
          2.2.1.1 MSROs should determine if recipients have access to appropriate human resources to properly handle the donation.   2.2.1.2 The appropriate product type and quantity, size, and material address the health needs of the target population.   2.2.1.3 MSROs should determine if recipient organizations have access to the reagents or consumables required to operate equipment.

          Guidance: 
          Resources –  2.2.1 Consumables Needs Assessment
          Human Resources Facility Questionnaire Resource Type: Template This template can be used by an MSRO, or donating organization, in order to gain needs assessment information from a potential recipient organization.
          Source: Training4Good, Facility Human Resource Questionnaire Template.  Available at: https://docs.google.com/document/d/1xu4muQhA0OKfiaxCXVdESKZt_pWM5_gmoINox2QQsug/pub. Created on 8/29/17.

          Health Needs Assessment: A Practical Guide Resource Type: Guidelines These guidelines were created by the National Center for Health and Care Excellence in the UK. It outlines the process for conducting a needs assessment and also provides case studies.

          Source: Cavanagh S and Chadwick K. National Center for Health and Care Excellence. Health needs Assessment: A Practical Guide. 2005. Available at: http://www.nice.org.uk/media/150/35/Health_Needs_Assessment_A_Practical_Guide.pdf. Accessed on: 9/20/13.

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          2.3 Needs Assessment – Medical Equipment

          2.3.1 Medical Equipment – Needs Assessment Medical equipment donations should only be made based on an expressed need, at the request of the in-country partner and after a thorough needs assessment confirms that the donation is also appropriate for the setting.
            In addition to the general assessment requirements, the medical equipment needs assessment process should collect and assess the following information.
            2.3.1.1 The technology is appropriate for the operating environment. 2.3.1.2 Number of accessories required is minimal and/or will not pose significant challenges for the operation and maintenance of the equipment. 2.3.1.3 Necessary operating supplies (particularly disposables) are available at an affordable cost. 2.3.1.4 Standardization with other equipment in-country. 2.3.1.5 The piece of equipment has low energy consumption. 2.3.1.6 The equipment uses environmentally friendly substances. 2.3.1.7 The equipment is easy to maintain. 2.3.1.8 The equipment has a reasonable tolerance to hostile electrical and physical environments.

              Guidance: Prior to the donation of a piece of medical equipment, the donating organization must assess the recipient’s capacity to handle the device. Important factors to consider include but are not limited to available facilities, electrical and pneumatic power, heating ventilation, and air conditioning. In addition, it should be determined whether or not the recipient organization has access to properly trained clinicians and technicians, to install, operate, maintain, calibrate and repair the device.  
              Resources – 2.3.1 Recipient Capacity to Support Medical Equipment
              WHO Guidelines for Health Care Equipment Donations Resource Type: Report This WHO resource provides general guidelines for health care equipment donations. These guidelines are a great resource for someone wanting to know about international standards for determining a quality medical equipment donation. Many of the things it mentions are important for an organization to consider during the needs assessment process.
              Citation: World Health Organization. Guidelines for Health Care Equipment Donations. March 2000. Available at: http://iupesm.ifmbe.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/04/WHOGuideEquipmDonation-2000.pdf
              WHO Country Assessment Tool on the Uses and Sources on Human Resources for Health Product Type: Tool This diagnostic tool contains questions intended to gather information on the uses, type and quality of data on HRH at the institutional level in countries. This step is critical to identify strengths and weaknesses of the current HRIS in countries. The resulting information can then be used to identify priorities and develop strategies to strengthen the HRIS at district, regional, or national level.
              Source: World Health Organization. Health Workforce. Available at: http://www.who.int/hrh/statistics/survey_use_source/en/index.html. Accessed on 9/18/13
              Policies in Health Technology by Country Resource Type: List This webpage was created by the WHO and it talks about the current policies and resolutions surrounding medical devices. On the page there is a excel spreadsheet that can be downloaded which lists various countries and provides links to important information regarding medical technology in that country.
              Citation: The World Health Organization. Medical Devices: Policies and Regulations. Available at: http://www.who.int/medical_devices/policies/en/. Accessed on: 9/4/13.
              Health Technology Assessment Guide Resource Type: Guide This document was developed by The World Health Organization and provides valuable information about performing a Health Technology Assessment (HTA). A HTA is “the systematic evaluation of properties, effects, and/or impacts of health technology.” This is an excellent resource for organizations to use during their needs assessment process.
              Citation: The World Health Organization. Health Technology Assessment: Health Technology Assessment of Medical Devices. Available at: http://www.who.int/medical_devices/assessment/en/. Accessed on: 9/4/13.
              World Health Organization Medical Device Data by Country Resource Type: Website, List The baseline country survey provides a global reference on health technologies, particularly on the availability of specific medical devices, policies, guidelines, standards and services.
              Citation: The World Health Organization. Medical Devices: Country Data. Available at: http://www.who.int/medical_devices/countries/en/. Accessed on: 9/4/13.
              Medical Device Donations: Considerations for Solicitation and Provision Resource Type: GuidelinesThese guidelines were created by the World Health Organization in 2011. They outline best practices for donation solicitors. This is a great resource for any MSRO or recipient involved in the donation of medical equipment.
              Source: The World Health Organization. Medical Device Donations: Considerations for Solicitation and Provision. 2011. Available at: http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2011/9789241501408_eng.pdf. Accessed on: 9/20/13.

              Top  2.3.2 Medical Equipment – Responsible Use Guide MSROs should provide the recipient with a responsible use guide that outlines the requirements for appropriate use and maintenance of the equipment, when applicable and possible. When a responsible use guide is not available, MSROs must inform the recipient prior to shipping the equipment.  The guide should include the following information.
              2.3.2.1 Product brand information. 2.3.2.2 Installation Location: including floor loading capacity, ceiling height, and door width 2.3.2.3 Electrical Power (voltage, frequency, phase, and dissipation). 2.3.2.4 Water volume, pressure, and drainage needed. 2.3.2.5 Safety requirements (such as shielding). 2.3.2.6 Sub-systems, such as cables, re-agents, filters, electrodes, and recording paper, which will be required to operate the equipment to be donated. 2.3.2.7 Maintenance. 2.3.2.8 Transportation and offloading information.

                Guidance:
                Resources – 2.3.2 Medical Equipment Responsible Use Guide
                Medical Equipment Responsible Use Guide Template Resource Type: TemplateThis template can be used by an MSRO when donating medical equipment. It can document information including the medical product type, manufacturer, installation location requirements or considerations, electrical power considerations, water considerations, safety requirements, sub-systems, maintenance requirements and transportation.
                WHO Medical Device Factsheet Resource Type: FactsheetThis WHO resource provides an overview of information that is helpful when considering the donation of medical equipment. It includes global situations and challenges, areas where more work is needed, and the WHO response.
                Source: World Health Organization. Media Centre – Medical Devices. Available at: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs346/en/. Accessed on 9/18/13.
                 
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                2.4 Needs Assessment – Pharmaceuticals 

                2.4.1 Pharmaceutical – Needs Assessment Pharmaceutical donations should only be made based on an expressed need, at the request of the in-country partner and after a thorough needs assessment confirms that the donation is also appropriate for the setting.
                  In addition to the general assessment requirements, the pharmaceutical needs assessment process should collect and assess the following information.
                  2.4.1.1 Whether the product being sent matches the expressed need and is appropriate for treating the affected population. 2.4.1.2 Whether the recipient organizations have determined if they have proper storage for the product. This includes storage facilities, shelving, dispensary facility, and refrigeration. 2.4.1.3 Whether the recipient organization has the proper staff for handling and dispensing of pharmaceuticals prior to any donation being made. 2.4.1.4 Prior to donating pharmaceuticals to a country, an organization must be familiar with any rules and regulations governing pharmaceuticals in that country. This can include but is not limited to what drugs are approved for use in the country, what appears on the country’s WHO list of essential medicines and any national standard treatment guidelines.

                  Guidance: Areas that should be considered are: product, strength, dosage, presentation (caps, tabs, vial, etc.), Population, age, gender, conditions, number of patients/target populations, service delivery, capacity of resource, typed of facility, number of beds, inpatient/outpatient, medical specialty, name/contact info for hospital administration/head doctor.  
                  Resources – 2.4.1 Pharmaceutical Needs Assessment
                  International Guidelines for National Regulations Concerning Travelers Under Treatment with Internationally Controlled Drugs Resource Type: Ebook This resource includes guidelines for traveling with psychotropic medication, as well as, resources for import and export regulations.
                  Source: International Guidelines for National Regulations Concerning Travelers Under Treatment with Internationally Controlled Drugs. Available at:http://www.incb.org/documents/Psychotropics/guidelines/travel-regulations/Intl_guidelines_travell_study/12-57111_ENG_Ebook.pdf. Accessed on 8/7/2013.
                  WHO Country List Resource Type: Website This WHO website page lists each WHO country with a link to each Country page that includes health statistics, health system information, and ministry of health contact information.Source: World Health Organization Countries. Available at: http://www.who.int/countries/en/. Accessed on: 8/7/2013.
                  WHO Pharmaceutical Sector Country Profiles Resource Type: Website This WHO resources include tools to measure key aspects of the pharmaceutical sector and systematically monitor the progress of efforts to improve access to essential medicines.
                  Source: World Health Organization, Programmes and Projects. Available at: http://www.who.int/medicines/areas/coordination/coordination_assessment/en/index.html. Accessed on: 8/7/2013

                  Top 2.4.2 Pharmaceuticals – Target Population Pharmaceutical donations should only be made based on an expressed need, at the request of the in-country partner and after a thorough needs assessment confirms that the donation is also appropriate for the setting.
                    2.4.2.1 MSROs should choose partners who have policies and plans in place to ensure that donations are used in a way that respects local culture and health practices.

                      Guidance:
                      Resources – 2.4.2 Donated Medicine is Needed, Relevant, and Approved for Use for Target Population
                      WHO Traditional Medicine Information Resource Type: WebpageThis WHO resource contains information on traditional medicine practices around the world and is separated into regions. It also includes general resources such as definitions, strategy and a fact sheet.
                      Source: World Health Organization – Health Topics. Available at: http://www.who.int/topics/traditional_medicine/en/. Accessed on 9/4/13.
                      WHO 2013 World Health Statistics Resource Type: ReportWorld Health Statistics 2013 contains WHO’s annual compilation of health-related data for its 194 Member States, and includes a summary of the progress made towards achieving the health-related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and associated targets.
                      Source: World Health Organization – World Health Statistics. Available at: http://www.who.int/gho/publications/world_health_statistics/2013/en/index.html. Accessed on 9/4/13.
                      WHO Model List of Essential Medicines (Adults and Children) Resource Type: List The WHO Essential Medicines lists is updated regularly and contains lists of essential medicines based on minimum population needs, diagnostic needs, and priority conditions. The page also provides links to previous lists, including ones that are adult and child specific.
                      Source: World Health Organization. Medicines. Available at: http://www.who.int/medicines/publications/essentialmedicines/en/. Accessed on 9/18/13.
                      Global Shift in Disease Patterns Requires Aid Rethink Resource Type: News Article This news articles addresses the shift in focus from Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTD) to Neglected Chronic Disease in 2011 at the United Nations first special health summit.
                      Source: Doggett, Jennifer. Crikey. Available at: http://blogs.crikey.com.au/croakey/2011/09/01/global-shift-in-disease-patterns-requires-aid-rethink/. Accessed on 9/4/13.
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